Surgeons of the 41st Regiment of
Foot during the War of 1812

By Gareth Newfield


The Regimental Medical System

During the early 19th century the British army possessed two tiers of medical care for its soldiers; the Army Medical Department and the regimental medical system. The Army Medical Department was the staff branch of the medical services, responsible for the provision of medical care and the enforcement of professional medical standards in the army in general, with particular responsibilities towards the administration of general hospitals and the medical services of large formations serving on campaign.  Below this, each unit possessed its own surgeons, medical officers who were part of the regimental staff.

In 1812 the medical establishment of a British infantry battalion or cavalry regiment consisted of a surgeon who ranked nominally as a captain, and two assistant surgeons who had the status of lieutenants, although neither were allowed to exercise military command beyond their medical responsibilities.  Wartime service in Canada, punctuated by chronic shortages of Medical Department staff officers, often resulted in the secondment of regimental surgeons from their regiments for staff duty, or to supervise detachments of regimental wounded and sick as units moved from location to location.

These medical officers provided immediate medical care to the unit in which they served.  They were responsible for the operation of the regimental hospital and the treatment of the sick and injured, as well as advising the commanding officer on matters concerning the health of the regiment’s soldiers.  In combat, regimental surgeons tended the wounded, administering first aid and performing necessary surgical operations upon the casualties.  Though they were officially regimental personnel in matters of administration and pay, their medical activities fell under the overall scrutiny of the Medical Department.

Regimental surgeons were to be drawn from medical graduates of the universities in Great Britain.  After being examined by a medical board, they were admitted to the Army Medical Department as “hospital mates” to learn military procedure, and then posted to a regiment as assistant surgeons. During the Napoleonic wars, the demands of two decades of warfare led at times to a relaxation of professional qualifications for medical personnel in the army.  Men with only diplomas or certificates of attendance from medical schools were sometimes accepted as surgeons.  Early in the period this led to rampant accusations of incompetence and quackery.  However, by 1810 several major reforms within the army had significantly reduced problems within the medical services.  By the War of 1812, though some surgeons, such as the illustrious George Guthrie – one of the most famous and skilled surgeons in the Peninsular War – lacked the formal qualification of a medical doctorate, most tended to the sick and wounded with the utmost zeal, skill and devotion to duty.  The regimental surgeons of the 41st Regiment were no exception, and did so under the arduous conditions of wartime service in Canada.

The 41st Regiment

At the outbreak of war on June 18th 1812, the 41st Regt. was one of the few British regiments serving in Upper Canada as part of the weak British garrison of the colonies.  It had been posted to Canada from Cork, Ireland in 1799, and served at various postings throughout Upper and Lower Canada for the next thirteen years.

During the initial stages of the war, the 41st gained early distinction, with detachments of the regiment serving under the command of Maj. Gen. Brock at the capture of Detroit on August 16th 1812.  Later that fall, the 41st formed the main part of the British and Amerindian force that thwarted the American invasion attempt at Queenston Heights on October 13th, though Brock was felled by an American sharpshooter early in the battle. 

The year 1813 was one of considerable hardship for the regiment.  At the Battle of Frenchtown on January 22nd, a large detachment of the 41st suffered 50% casualties, and the regimental aid post was nearly overrun.  Afterwards, the 41st served in Brig. Gen. Procter’s failed expeditions into Ohio.  Several detachments were embarked as marines on Commodore Barclay’s squadron on Lake Erie, only to be taken prisoner after the defeat of the squadron on September 10th at the Battle of Lake Erie.  The remainder of the regiment fought in the disastrous defeat at the Battle of the Thames on October 5th 1813, after which the majority of the first battalion was taken prisoner by the Americans and held captive under terrible conditions in the United States.  That fall, the 41st was reconstituted by the amalgamation of the survivors of the first battalion with the second battalion (which had been sent to Canada that spring as reinforcements) into a single unit.  Reformed, the amalgamated 41st participated in the capture of Fort Niagara on Dec. 18th 1813. 

During 1814, the 41st continued to serve in the Niagara region.  The regiment gained particular distinction at the bloody Battle of Lundy’s Lane on July 25th 1814, as well as the siege of Fort Erie, where the flank companies of the 41st suffered massive casualties during Lt. Gen. Drummond’s failed night assault on August 15th.  Following the news of peace in January 1815, the 41st performed garrison duty in Lower Canada before being dispatched to Belgium that summer to participate in the Waterloo campaign.  The regiment arrived in Belgium too late for the battle, but joined the Allied army of occupation in Paris.

Surgeons of the 41st

Surgeon Alexander Thom
(1st Bttn., 18 May 1803 – 29 July 1813)

Alexander Thom received an M.A. from King’s College, Aberdeen in 1791.  He joined the army as a Surgeon’s Mate with the 88th Regt. on September 25th, 1795, and transferred to the 35th Regt. on October 24th 1796.  Following medical reforms, he was commissioned Assistant Surgeon in the 35th on March 9th 1797.  On August 30th 1799 Thom was promoted to Surgeon of the 35th, seeing action during the 1799 campaign in Holland.  On April 25th 1803 Thom was placed briefly on half pay.  On May 17th 1803 Thom returned to full pay as Surgeon of the 41st Regt., and sailed to Canada. 

After the outbreak of war in 1812, he was not noted as being present at the siege of Detroit, and therefore probably remained with the half of the regiment stationed at Ft. George.  On February 11th 1813, Deputy Inspector of Hospitals James Macaulay forwarded queries from Thom regarding the treatment of wounded American prisoners and forage rations for staff officers keeping horses to the military secretary to the Commander in Chief.[1]  In the letter, Thom is referred to as an “Acting Staff Surgeon”, suggesting he had been detached from the 41st some time previously for staff duty with the Medical Department. 

Following the capture of Ft. George on May 27th 1813, Thom tended the wounded during Brig. Gen. Vincent’s retreat to Burlington Heights.  Vincent’s retreat was praised by his superiors for its orderliness, but Thom’s correspondence suggests that the medical services at least were somewhat neglected during the march.  In the midst of the retreat Thom remained with the wounded, writing dispatches concerning the condition of the casualties, addressing one in particular to, “Brigadier General Vincent or Officer Com’g. British Troops.”[2]  As an acting medical staff officer, Thom would have been one of, if not the senior medical officer in the Division at the time, and his uncertainty over who was in command two days after the capture of Ft. George is perhaps indicative of some confusion or disarray. 

Interestingly, in this dispatch Thom signed himself by his permanent rank of Surgeon, 41st Regt., suggesting his acting rank was still a temporary appointment.  Ultimately Thom’s staff appointment was ratified on July 29th 1813, when he was promoted to Staff Surgeon, thereby ending his service with the 41st.  His earlier detachment to duties in the Niagara region and subsequent promotion removed him from any involvement in the regiment’s misfortunes under Procter’s command that year. 

By August 1813 Thom was stationed in York.  One of his chief concerns was the accommodation of the wounded and sick, for which he requested the use of the town church (known simply as “The Church”, and later to be dedicated to St. James in 1828).  The Rev. Dr. Strachan, ever a champion of the Anglican religion, reluctantly assented on the condition that another place for religious worship was found immediately, and that the church only be used in situations of necessity.  Though use of the church was left to Thom’s discretion, Strachan was grudging enough to remind him, “…of its continuance that it be no longer than the urgency of the case require.”[3] Evidently the facilities at York were temporarily adequate, as the church was only emptied of its pews and converted into a hospital during the spring of 1814 to accommodate the casualties from the fighting in the Niagara region.[4]

During 1814, Thom is recorded as serving as the “head surgeon” at the church-cum-general hospital in York.   George Ferguson, a private of the 100th Regt. wounded at the Battle of Chippawa was treated by Thom.  Ferguson recounted wanting a second opinion when debating with Thom whether his arm should be amputated:

“Dr. Tom [sp.], the head surgeon, said that my arm must come off immediately. I enquired if Dr. Ferguson was in the hospital. - ‘Do you want to see him?’ was the reply. ‘I do, sir,’ said I, and he was immediately sent for.”[5]

Thom remained in the Medical Department staff in Canada till the end of the war, and retired on half pay on February 15th 1817, settling in Upper Canada.  He died in Perth, Canada West (Ontario) on September 26th 1845.

Surgeon John Garland Harford

(1st Bttn., 8 July 1813 – 18 January 1816)

John Garland Harford was commissioned Hospital Mate on March 24th, 1799.  A year later, he was appointed as Assistant Surgeon in the 17th Regt.  He continued to serve in that regiment till he was promoted to Surgeon in the 101st Regt. on November 8th, 1810.  On August 8th 1811 he exchanged into the Royal Newfoundland Fencible Regt. with which he served at the outbreak of the war.

Harford exchanged again to Surgeon in the 41st Regt. on July 8th 1813. Which battalion Harford exchanged into is the source of some confusion.[6]   Technically, Thom was still on the regimental books as Surgeon of the 1/41st at that time, and would not officially leave the regiment till his promotion on July 29th.  Furthermore, the second battalion had arrived at Quebec on May 15th 1813, although no surgeon had been appointed.[7]  If exchanging, he ought to have been posted to the obvious vacancy in the second battalion, since Thom was senior both regimentally and by commission date to him.  Regardless, he immediately did duty with the first battalion. A disembarkation return for Procter’s detachment of the Right Division dated August 1813 lists there being 5 staff officers – which would include the full compliment of three  medical officers - present with the 41st Regt., and therefore Harford must have been amongst them.[8]  We may surmise that Harford could have been temporarily attached to the second battalion, but was sent where the need was greatest, i.e. with the first battalion (which lacked a surgeon in Thom’s absence and was engaged on active service).  It is also possible that his exchange was in anticipation of Thom’s eventual promotion, and the second battalion remained without a surgeon till several weeks later when William Robertson was promoted.  Ultimately, in October 1814 he is listed on a roll of 1/41st officers compiled by Brig. Gen. Procter at Quebec, confirming his eventual assignment to the first battalion one means or another.[9]

Harford escaped capture at the Battle of the Thames, as his name is not listed as being amongst the imprisoned officers of the 41st subsequently held in Kentucky.[10]  There after, Harford’s services are unclear.  The amalgamated 41st would have had a surplus of medical officers, and whether the regiment continued to serve with 6 medical staff or some were posted to other duties is uncertain.  Reports to Harford from Asst. Surgeon Kennedy dated November 23rd 1814 indicate he was in garrison in Montreal with the regiment at that time, but does not elaborate further.[11]   

Harford remained with the 41st until January 18th 1816, when he retired on half pay and returned to Britain.  He died on March 21st 1830 in Richmond-upon-Thames, England.[12]

Assistant Surgeon Thomas Moore

(1st Bttn., 21 December 1809 – 26 January 1815)

Thomas Moore was commissioned as a Hospital Mate for General Service on October 12th, 1809.  On December 21st 1809 he was appointed to the position of Assistant Surgeon, 41st Regt, and embarked for Canada.

Moore’s early-war activities are unclear, though he probably remained with the 41st in the Niagara region since he is not noted as serving under Brock on the Detroit frontier.  Along with Surgeon Harford and Asst. Surgeon Faulkner, Moore likely served in Procter’s offensive operations into Ohio during 1813, as suggested by the return from that expedition, and remained with Procter’s contingent until after the Battle of the Thames.  Moore also escaped capture, though not without some personal loss, as he submitted a claim from York on June 14th 1814 for the loss of his personal baggage at the battle.[13]  Like Harford, he is still listed amongst the serving officers of the 1/41st on the roll drafted by Procter in October 1814.[14]

Moore was promoted to Surgeon in the 58th Regt. on January 26th, 1815.  On August 3rd 1815 he exchanged into the Canadian Fencibles Regt. as Surgeon.  Moore retired on half pay on June 14th 1816, and settled in the Niagara region.  He died in St. Catharines, Upper Canada (Ontario) on May 13th, 1818.

Assistant Surgeon William Faulkner

(1st Bttn., 14 June 1810 – 7 March 1816)

Miniature Portrait of Assistant Surgeon William Faulkner, c.1811 (private coll.)

William Faulkner was commissioned into the army as a Hospital Mate for General Service with the Army Medical Department on May 17th 1810.  Shortly thereafter, he was appointed to the post of Assistant Surgeon in the 41st Regiment, and sailed to join the regiment in Canada.  Faulkner was noted as serving with detachments of his regiment at Ft. Malden by 1811.

After the declaration of war during the summer of 1812, Faulkner accompanied a detachment of the 41st that fought at the Battle of Monguagon, MI on August 9th 1812.  His presence was noted by Thomas VerchŹres de Boucherville, an acquaintance and Indian agent who also participated under the command of Captain Muir of the 41st.[15]  Several days after the battle, VerchŹres consulted Faulkner regarding his slow recovery from a wound the former had sustained at Monguagon.  Faulkner agreed to allow a Shawnee healer personally recommended by Tecumseh to treat the patient with herb compresses.  In his memoirs VerchŹres recalled:

“I consulted with Dr. Faulkner of the regiment and with Dr. Richardson, my regular physician, and both agreed that there was no harm in the treatment.  My Indian doctor therefore returned the next day and started with his herbs.  Ten days later the wound was healed and I was able to resume my duties.”[16] 

Faulkner’s willingness to implement Amerindian remedies is a singular example of the open-mindedness of British military surgeons towards adopting unfamiliar Native medical practices, as well as an example of cross-cultural exchange of medical knowledge between Native and European doctors during the war.

Afterwards, Faulkner served with his regiment during the siege and capture of Detroit, and was a recipient of prize money awarded after that victory.[17]  Like Surgeon Harford, he likely participated in Procter’s foray in to the United States during 1813, his presence being accounted for in the return of the 41st in Ohio during August of that year.[18]  Following the defeat at the Battle of the Thames, Faulkner escaped to the Niagara peninsula with the remnants of the 41st.

His active service apparently affected the state of his health, as he was transferred to Quebec, and took a leave of absence after the war.  In 1815 the 41st were dispatched to Belgium for the Waterloo campaign, with Faulkner rejoining the 41st at St. Denis, France in July.  He exchanged into the 1st Royal Veteran Battalion on March 7th 1816, and became the assistant surgeon at Pendennis Castle.  Upon the disbandment of the 1st Royal Veteran Battalion, he retired on half pay on August 25th 1816.   William Faulkner returned to his birthplace in Huntingdonshire and married Ann Bond Gray on18th September 1816.[19]  Faulkner then moved to Polton, Bedfordshire where he established a private practice. He died on December 2nd 1823 at the age of thirty-six, apparently due to "an affectation of the lungs due to his service in Canada."[20]  Mrs. Faulkner applied for and received an army pension on account of her late husband’s services.

Surgeon William Robertson

(2nd Bttn., 29 July 1813 – 25 June 1815)

Portrait of Dr. William Robertson c. 1832 (Courtesy of Campbell House Museum, Toronto)

Born in Scotland into the landed gentry, William Robertson joined the British army at the age of 13 in 1797, being appointed to an ensigncy in the 73rd Regt. and seeing action during the Irish Rebellion of 1798.  Between 1802 and 1805 Robertson studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, but although he attended three sessions, he did not graduate.  Robertson was appointed Hospital Mate on July 9th 1805.  The instructions written in for the conduct of the Medical Staff overseas in 1795 state that candidates had to be examined by an army Hospital Board to ascertain their qualifications.[21]  Robertson is thus an example of the many military doctors who though qualified, practiced without formal medical degrees.

In 1805, while sailing to Canada, Robertson was shipwrecked off Cape Breton Island.  He convalesced in the home of William Campbell, the island’s attorney-general (and later Chief Justice of Upper Canada), whose daughter Amelia Elizabeth he subsequently married.  Having recovered, Robertson was appointed Assistant Surgeon of the 49th Regt. in Lower Canada on October 23rd 1806.  Following the death of Surgeon Lennon on July 6th 1809, Robertson acted as regimental surgeon temporarily.  However, the vacancy was filled by Assistant Surgeon John W. Korb of the 41st.  Acting in a higher rank without benefit of increased pay caused Robertson financial strain, as he submitted a petition for the reimbursement of his expenses to Governor-General Sir James Henry Craig on Oct. 24th 1809.[22]

During the winter of 1812 / 1813 Robertson was stationed in Lower Canada.  Writing to relatives from Ft. Lennox at Isle Aux Noix, he complained about the lack of medical staff in Canada:

“All winter I had charge of a General Hospital at St. Johns [St. Jean] and for the last two months have been the only medical man at this post where there ought to be three.  However, we have a hard duty lately for the scarcity of Army Surgeons in this country, more are daily expected from England.”.[23]

On June 3rd 1813 Robertson accompanied a party of the 100th Regt. involved in the capture of American gunboats on Lake Champlain:

“The commanding officer and I went in a Row Boat with Two flat Bottomed Boats full of men to act according to circumstances…There were ten wounded & one killed of the Americans only two of our men wounded being the only medical officer on the Island I had my hands full for half an hour on their arrival…it is to me unaccountable how we escaped so well for Round, Grape & Canister were falling like hail all around…”[24]

Robertson remained with the 49th until he was promoted to Surgeon of the 2/41st on July 29th 1813.  During the winter of 1813 / 1814 Robertson served with the amalgamated 41st Regt., participating in the capture of Fort Niagara on December 18th 1813.  By the end of the war he was stationed at Ft. Wellington in Prescott, Upper Canada.  Robertson’s time in Prescott was punctuated by one tragic incident in April 1815.  His colleague, a Surgeon Morrice of the 16th Regt. contracted an unknown ailment, and on April 18th lay dying after copiously vomiting up blood.  Robertson, being the only other doctor present, was called to treat him, but was unable to due to being prostrated himself with a case of fever and ague.  Unattended, Morrice died of his gruesome affliction later that day.[25]

When the 2/41st was reduced at the conclusion of hostilities, Robertson was granted permission to remain in Canada, and retired on half pay on June 25th 1815 in Montreal.  As officers’ half pay was usually drawn in England on a biannual basis, Robertson specifically requested to have his half pay paid from the Canadian establishment to avoid the inconvenience of delays in the transmission of funds.[26]  Nearly seven months later, Robertson’s atypical arrangements had yet to be approved, as indicated by his writing the military secretary at Quebec due to not receiving a response.[27]  Presumably his request was later granted.

After the war, Robertson had a lengthy and varied career in public service.  He served in a number of public medical offices, and helped found both the Montreal General Hospital in 1819, as well as the medical faculty of McGill College (later McGill University).  Somewhat belatedly, he received an honorary MD from the University of Vermont in 1832.  Robertson was also active politically, being appointed a magistrate in Montreal in 1818.  His chief notoriety stems from his involvement in the Montreal election riots in 1832, when British troops under his authority fired on civilian rioters.  His handling of the incident was severely criticised by Louis-Joseph Papineau (leader of the 1837 Rebellion in Lower Canada), which prompted Robertson to challenge Papineau to a duel.  Papineau subsequently refused to accept on the excuse that he was critiquing Robertson as a public official, not as a private individual.[28]  Robertson continued to hold public offices till retiring due to ill health in 1842, before dying in Montreal on July 18th 1844.

Assistant Surgeon John Kennedy

(2nd Bttn., 4 March 1813 – 25 Aug. 1815)

John Kennedy was commissioned as a Hospital Mate for General Service on January 6th 1813.  On March 4th 1813 he was appointed Assistant Surgeon in the newly formed 2nd battalion of the 41st Regt.  That spring he sailed to Canada along with reinforcements of the 2/41st sent to replenish the 1st battalion, arriving at Quebec on May 15th 1813.

By June he was at Burlington Heights, from where he was ordered with a draft of the 2nd battalion to reinforce the 1st battalion then serving under Procter. Upon arrival he was temporarily appointed as an acting surgeon aboard the HMS Lady Prevost due to a shortage of medical officers with the Lake Erie squadron.  Along with the rest of the 41st serving as marines, Kennedy was taken prisoner on September 10th and held at Erie, Pennsylvania.  While treating the wounded there, Kennedy recalled:

“…having performed several of the difficult operations in surgery with success (some of which had been deemed impracticable by both our own, and the American surgeons), and having seen every man who was wounded in the action cured of his wounds…had the pleasure of leaving them with every mark of their gratitude and with every consciousness of having done his duty.”[29]

Commodore Barclay himself noted Kennedy’s professional merit, remarking that his, “…most unremitting and scientific zeal and attention to his professional duty entitles him to His Majesty’s favour.”[30]

His services and capture evidently caused Kennedy some financial strain.  Upon his repatriation from the United States in May 1814, he submitted a request for additional pay as an acting naval surgeon due to his attachment to the Lake Erie squadron, and solicited the support of Commodore Barclay.[31]   He was also included on a list of 41st officers petitioning in February 1815 for the reimbursement of personal losses incurred while being held as prisoners.[32]

Following their repatriation, Kennedy met the first of the 41st prisoners who returned from incarceration in the United States at Long Point, Upper Canada on October 7th 1814.  Emotionally shocked by the appearance of the prisoners, Kennedy wrote of the scene:

“At the first sight of our poor fellows, it was with difficulty I could suppress my feelings of pity at their miserable condition, and of indignation at their rascality [sp.] treatment which was the cause of it…The further we advanced the scene of misery deepened…we arrived gradually to the very essence of everything miserable – nakedness, disease & death.”[33]

He reported that overall the men were so frail that several had died on the voyage back to Canada.[34]  To treat the scores of sick and emaciated prisoners, Kennedy established a general hospital at Ancaster.  Of the one hundred and seven enlisted men in his charge, he remarked that “… they certainly will be of no use to His Majesty this winter & a considerable part of it will pass before they are equal to a long journey…”[35]  However, he also noted that under his arrangements and care his patients were, “...well lodged, well clothed and well fed…they are very comfortable.”[36]  The attentiveness Kennedy paid to the sick at Ancaster was corroborated by Physician Erly of the Medical Department upon inspecting the hospital that November, when the number of sick repatriated soldiers had increased to one hundred and fifty men.[37]

After the war, Kennedy was placed on half pay on August 25th 1815, and returned to England.  Later that fall, he was returned to full pay as Assistant Surgeon in the 3rd Garrison Battalion.  Transferring once again, Kennedy became Assistant Surgeon of the 1st Ceylon Regiment on January 25th 1816, and proceeded to the Indian Ocean.  Kennedy then served with his regiment during the Ceylon Rebellion of 1817 – 1818, being killed in action by the rebels in 1818.

Assistant Surgeon William Pardey

(2nd Bttn., 4 March 1813  - 12 May 1814)

William Pardey joined the 2/41st on March 4th 1813, having previously served as an assistant surgeon in Ireland with the North Mayo Militia.  On May 12th 1814 he transferred to the 19th Light Dragoons, also serving in Canada at that time.  He continued to serve until placed on half pay on September 25th 1817.  Pardey gained his MD from the University of Vermont in 1818, suggesting he had remained in North America following the end of the war.  Like Surgeon Robertson, he is another example of a surgeon who served without holding a medical doctorate.  Pardey returned to full pay on the Medical Staff on December 25th 1822, although his rank is not recorded.[38]  On April 26th 1831 he transferred to the Rifle Brigade, and died at Montreal on June 30th 1832.

Assistant Surgeon William Forsyth

(2nd Bttn., 26 January 1815 – 25th Dec. 1818)

Forsyth was commissioned as a Hospital Assistant in the Army Medical Department on June 21st 1813.  On January 26th 1815 he was appointed Assistant Surgeon, 41st Regt., most likely to fill the vacancy caused by Pardey’s transfer to the 19th LD the previous May.  On December 25th 1818 he was placed on half pay.  According to Johnston, he died sometime before December 1820.[39]


Despite the popular stereotype of incompetence amongst military doctors being pervasive during the period, the regimental surgeons of the 41st Regiment played an important and successful role in the provision of medical care to the forces of His Majesty throughout the War of 1812.  In the face of many hardships, they were frequently called upon to tend to large numbers of sick and wounded, having to make do with the materials and facilities at hand in largely rural Canada.  The surgeons of the 41st showed a strong devotion to duty, as Surgeon Thom demonstrated by remaining with the wounded throughout the retreat to Burlington Heights in May 1813.  Far from being incompetent butchers, they were technically proficient in matters of surgery and professionally capable of providing for their patients’ comfort, as borne out by Asst. Surgeon Kennedy’s efforts after the Battle of Lake Erie and later in Ancaster.  They were medically progressive, willing to try unconventional treatments like Asst. Surgeon Faulkner did at Fort Malden.  Several remained in Canada after the war, and made significant contributions towards healthcare in their new communities, as did Surgeon Robertson in Montreal.  The 41st Regt. was a mainstay of the defence of Canada during the War of 1812, and the services of the regimental surgeons of the 41st were every bit as difficult, challenging and no less creditable than those endured by their more famous colleagues serving in the Peninsular War. 

Copyright: Canadian War Museum 2007

[1] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 689, p. 203, Macaulay to Freer, Quebec, February 11th 1813.

[2] LAC RG 8 I, vol. 689, p. 70), Thom to Vincent or Officer Commanding British Troops, On Service (Niagara Peninsula), May 29th 1813.

[3] St. James Cathedral Archives, War of 1812 Fond, Strachan to Thom, York, August 9th 1813.  Extract taken from a letter written by a Mr. George Spragge, Toronto, Sept. 30th 1938.

[4] Dunlop, W.  “Recollections of the American War”, in Tiger Dunlop’s Upper Canada.  (Toronto:

McClelland & Stewart Ltd., 1967.) p. 56.

[5] Unpublished memoirs of Pte. George Ferguson, 100th Regt.  (Extracts kindly provided by Prof. R. Hobbs).

[6] Johnston, W.  Roll of Commissioned Officers in the Medical Service of the British Army.  (Aberdeen:  University of Aberdeen Press, 1917) p. 128.  Johnston’s roll does not indicate which battalion Harford exchanged into, nor does regimental correspondence provide any evidence at the time in question.

[7] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 912, pp. 33 – 37, Kennedy to Prevost, York, May 18th 1814.  In a memorial petition for extra pay on account of his services with the Lake Erie squadron, Kennedy describes himself as the senior medical officer in the 2/41st at the time of his attachment to the squadron during the summer of 1813, indicating no surgeon had been appointed at that time.

[8] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 679, p. 370, Disembarkation Return of a Detachment of the Right Division of the Army Commanded by Brigadier General Proctor, Sandusky State of Ohio US 1st August 1813.

[9] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 912, p. 86A, Return of Officers of the 41st Regiment of Foot.  This list is not dated, but is included amongst regimental correspondence sent by Procter from Quebec also dated to approximately fall 1814.  Interestingly, it only lists officers of the 1st battalion, even though both battalions were present in Canada by that time.

[10] List of  British Prisoners of War at the Frankfort Penitentiary, 1813-1814, Kentucky Historical Society (Transcript kindly provided by Mr. J. Yaworsky).

[11] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 912, p. 86B, Kennedy to Harford, Ancaster, November 23rd 1814.

[12] I am indebted to Prof. R. Hobbs for the information on Harford’s place of death.

[13] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 912, p. 46, Moore to Freer, York, June 14th 1814.

[14]  ‘Return of Officers of the 41st Regiment of Foot’, ibid.

[15] VerchŹres de Boucherville, R.T.  “The Chronicles of Thomas VerchŹres de Boucherville.” in War on the Detroit: the chronicles of Thomas VerchŹres de Boucherville, and The Capitulation by an Ohio Volunteer. ed. by M.M. Quaife.  (Chicago: Lakeside Press, R.R. Donnelley & Sons, 1940.) p. 86.  VerchŹres refers to Muir as being a major, although he was only a captain at the time.  This may be indicative of Muir holding a brevet or local rank for the purposes of commanding the mixed force of regulars, militia and Indians of which VerchŹres was a part.

[16] Ibid., pp. 104 – 105.

[17] LAC, MG 24, G 70, Prize List ledger, Capture of Detroit.  Faulkner appears to have personally entered his name on this list.

[18]Disembarkation Return of a Detachment of the Right Division’, ibid.

[19] See Henderson, R.  “Assistant Surgeon William Faulkner of the 41st Regiment during the War of 1812”, War of 1812 website, c. 1997

[20] Henderson, ibid.

[21] LAC RG 8-I Vol. 1332, p. 120,  Instructions for the Conduct of the Medical Staff to be Employed on Foreign Service.” (London, 1795).   These instructions are part of a War Office circular dated London, April 28th 1795 transcribed into the Commissary General’s Office Book, Quebec.

[22] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 1334, p. 88, Robertson to Craig, Three Rivers, October 24th 1809.  This is a transcript of the memorial petition sent by Robertson to Governor General Sir James Craig, copied into the Commissary General’s Office Book, Quebec.

[23] Private Collection,  W. Robertson to J. Robertson, Isle Aux Noix, June 5th 1813.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Private Collection.  A.E. Robertson to D. Robertson, Prescott, April 24th 1815.

[26] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 914, pp. 88-89, Robertson to Foster, Montreal, November 22nd 1815.

[27] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 914, p. 90, Robertson to Foster, Montreal, May 16th 1816.

[28] Bensley, E.H.  “Robertson, William.” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography (Vol. VII).  (Toronto:  University of Toronto Press, 1988.) p. 751.

[29] Kennedy to Prevost, York, May 18th 1814, ibid..

[30] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 912, pp. 38-39, Barclay to Freer, Montreal, May 30th 1814.

[31] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 912, pp. 40-42, Kennedy to Barclay, York, May 17th 1814. 

[32].LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 913, pp. 22-23, Evans to Freer, Three Rivers, February 10th 1815.

[33] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 693, pp. 42 – 43, Kennedy to Evans, Long Point, October 8th 1814.

[34] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 912, pp. 99-100, Return of the Sick of the 41st Regimt. In Hospitals at Ancaster, November 25th 1814.  Compiled by Kennedy, this list indicates the names and illnesses of the 107 former POWs under his care at Ancaster on that date, the vast majority of whom were suffering from debilitating dysentery or intermittent fevers.  He also notes that 15 or 20 had died in captivity in Ohio, 5 had died crossing Lake Erie while being repatriated, 1 died upon landing at Long Point, and 7 died within two days of their return to Upper Canada.

[35] Kennedy to Harford, Ancaster, November 23rd 1814, ibid.

[36] Ibid.

[37] LAC, RG 8 I, vol. 693, p. 142, Erly to Foster, Fort George, November 7th 1814.

[38] Johnston, p. 236.

[39] Johnston, p. 242.